The University Without Walls: Splash Brings Teaching and Learning Together

The traditional model of university learning truncates students’ vision on both ends. High school students may be told that they should aspire to higher education, but unless family members are part of that tradition they may not know why.  Once admitted, undergraduates study academic subjects and are tested for signs of accomplishment, but have limited opportunities to take the next step of sharing their knowledge and skills with others.

MIT Splash 2014 scene at the registration desk in the Infinite Corridor, Memorial Lobby

In my role as a parent, I recently accompanied my ninth-grader to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Splash program. Taking place every year on the weekend before Thanksgiving, Splash is a 2-day, 20-hour marathon of 1-hour classes taught by MIT undergraduates on subjects tending heavily toward the natural sciences, computer science and mathematics but also including the social sciences, humanities, arts and popular culture. Some classes are designed for attendees who are already advanced in mathematics, computer programming or other technical skills, but most classes require no prior knowledge at all. To get a full idea of the breadth of Splash, see 2014’s course catalog and its list of 618 unique classes. Any high school student may attend, and the cost of attendance is a relatively low $40 (with financial aid available).

MIT Splash Session on Systems of Voting and their functional outcomes -- November 2014

To keep Splash focused on high-schoolers and to let those high-schoolers spread their wings, parents are prohibited from attending sessions, but a separate session for parents led by Jordan Moldow ’14 was informative. Moldow’s “Behind the Scenes” presentation gave me a sense of the scale of this effort:

MIT Splash 2014 Statistics: 2500 students, 457 teachers, 618 unique classes, 30 student administrators

Put together 2500 students, 457 teachers, 30 administrators and many more volunteers and you’ve got a takeover of the MIT campus for a weekend. MIT donates space, which is helpful considering that this is a non-profit student effort. It’s also a smart move by MIT, considering that 2500 geek-minded young people every year have a chance to fall in love with the campus; you couldn’t dream of a better effort to recruit future applicants.

MIT’s Splash is not an overnight success; rather, it is the result of long, cumulative investment. MIT inaugurated its ESP (Educational Studies Program) for teens in 1957 with its High School Summer Project, and ESP launched its first Splash weekend in 1988. Splash is now in its 26th year, and has become such a phenomenon at MIT that according to Moldow, “a large portion of MIT students will at some point during their time here do something for Splash.”

The organizational effort to keep Splash is considerable. No Splash leaders or organizers are paid; all are volunteers. Chairs, treasurers, secretaries, administrative organizers, art directors, publicity directors, website administrators and directors of teacher development form a core group that meets twice a week during the school year, once to make group decisions and once more in a work session to carry out those decisions.

New Splash teachers are cultivated every year, months before the event itself. Veteran teachers act as directors of teacher development, Moldow explained to parents. Their role is to “communicate with teachers and critique their syllabi or class descriptions. We run 3-6 teacher trainings each year to talk about what are effective methods of presenting materials to a class, to make sure students absorb information, to make sure it is entertaining and to make sure that students are engaged.” A few members of the Cambridge, Massachusetts community volunteer to teach Splash classes, but most teachers are undergraduate MIT students. By learning to teach, MIT students improve their command of the subjects they study while practicing the important skill of communicating advanced knowledge in a concise and comprehensible way. “Just as we are trying to serve students by teaching them, so we are also trying to serve teachers by helping them to become better teachers,” Moldow said.

As Splash has become more and more popular at MIT, the organizers of Splash have sought to expand the program beyond that university’s walls to involve other campuses. In 2009, Splash alumni formed Learning Unlimited, a non-profit organization that organizes an annual “SplashCon” and supports over 20 universities that have started running their own local Splashes. If students at your university are interested in starting a Splash, Learning Unlimited will bring them into a nurturing network of advisors and supply them with the software they need to make a Splash run — at no charge. Get in touch with the leadership of Learning United here to spread this model of education that so spectacularly brings down the Ivory Tower’s walls.

Before #MillionsMarchNYC, a Protest Movement Takes to Facebook and Twitter

December 12 2014 is the day before the Millions March in New York City, an organized reaction to the death of unarmed black men at the hands of the police and more broadly to structural forms of racial discrimination. Tomorrow, a variety of professional journalists will hopefully describe the messages and activities of the protest and reactions to this protest. Today, we can study the run-up to the Millions March by watching people talk about it on Facebook and Twitter.

Facebook, the social media website that most people know best, lets users create personal accounts and pages that they control. Administrators of a page for a group or event can allow posts by others, but they can also purge them if they find the content disagreeable. For announcing activist events, Facebook is a top-down affair. If you want to know what movement organizers think of their protest event, look at their Facebook page. The following is a word cloud taken from administrative posts to the MillionsMarchNYC. Words are larger in this graphic if they occur more frequently:

A Wordle Word Cloud representing the frequency of various words used by organizers of the MillionsMarch in New York City on December 13 2014

We see a lot of practical information here, many references to locations and plans and logistical concerns.  This is what’s on the mind of movement leaders. What’s on the mind of the many thousands who are thinking about going?

Twitter is a social media website unlike Facebook, a website on which certain people own Pages and control those Pages’ content. On Twitter, subjects are organized by hashtags, which no one owns, no one can purge, and which therefore tends to be driven from the bottom up. A corporation with an image problem on Facebook can simply delete comments. Woe betide the corporation that offends on Twitter; it may entirely lose control of the public conversation about itself. If you want to know what people are thinking about a social movement inside and outside its leadership, look at Twitter.

To do just that, I’ve gathered up all Twitter posts (“Tweets”) using the hashtag #MillionsMarchNYC. Perhaps the simplest way of characterizing #MillionsMarchNYC tweets is over time; as of 12 Noon on December 12, here’s the trend in posting volume:

Graph: Volume of Twitter Posts using the hashtag #MillionsMarchNYC through December 12, 12 Noon Eastern Time

5,415 tweets using the newly-created hashtag were posted from November 26 to December 12, but the dates November 26-30 are not even included in this graph because the number of tweets during that initial period — just 6 — is miniscule in comparison to the conversation two weeks later. The trend clearly indicates a spike in use of the #MillionsMarchNYC hashtag, especially over the last few days before the march, but what ideas are associated with the spiking hashtag?

A useful feature of Twitter for answering that question is that a single post may contain more than one hashtag. The co-occurrence of #MillionsMarchNYC with other hashtags in the set of Nov. 30 – Dec. 12 tweets is indicated in the following frequency table:

hashtag frequency
#blacklivesmatter 2020
#icantbreathe 1360
#dec1314 1232
#nyc2palestine 832
#shutitdown 317
#ericgarner 316
#nyc 170
#stolenlives 168
#ferguson 136
#dayofanger 128
#thisstopstoday 116
#mikebrown 103
#justiceleaguenyc 91
#fromtherivertothesea 90
#washingtonsquarepark 72
#indictthesystem 71
#nyc2ferguson 66
#anonymous 62
#wecantbreathe 62
#expectus 61
#nojusticenopeace 55
#intersectionality 49
#palestine 47
#d1314 44
#12/13/14 35
#41986 35
#12/13/2014 35
#freepalestine 27
#millionsmarchsf 25
#akaigurley 22
#weekofoutrage 22
#justiceforericgarner 21
#directaction 19
#justiceformikebrown 19
#alllivesmatter 18
#jailsupport 18
#millionsmarch 17
#handsupdontshoot 16
#equalrights4all 15
#humanrightsday 15
#michaelbrown 15
#opbelgium 14
#santacon 14
#ftp 12
#icantbreath 12
#nycprotest 12
#dayofresistance 11
#dec1213 11
#love 10
#millionsmarchoakland 10
#nojusticenopeacenoracistpolice 10

In the interest of brevity, I’ve only included hashtags used at least ten times in this list.  Just three hashtags co-occur with #MillionsMarchNYC more than 1,000 times: #blacklivesmatter, #icantbreathe and #dec1314.  The tail of the distribution is long, however, with many hashtags occurring a handful of times or just once:

Frequency Distribution of Hashtag CoOccurrence with #MillionsMarchNYC from November 26 to December 12 2014

These many hashtags do not simply co-occur with #MillionsMarchNYC in these Twitter posts, however.  They also sometimes co-occur with one another, forming a co-occurrence network that tells us something about the symbolic landscape of the leadup to this protest.

Sometimes the truth is messy; the following is a graph showing the complete co-occurrence network of hashtags used with #MillionsMarchNYC (the #MillionsMarchNYC hashtag itself is removed from the network to highlight connections between other tags).  Every hashtag is a node in this network and every co-occurrence between two hashtags appears as a tie between the two nodes.  A tie is drawn more darkly if the co-occurrence happens more often, and a node is drawn in greater size if the hashtag it represents co-occurs with a greater number of other hashtags.  Nodes are given different colors to highlight sets of nodes that are more strongly connected with one another:

Complete Co-Occurrent Network of Hashtags in #MillionsMarchNYC Twitter Posts, Nov. 26 to Dec 12

That’s pretty hard to read, isn’t it?  A few tags are evident, but there are so many that they overlap with one another, blending into a blurry mess.  The culture of a social movement can actually be a lot like that, with a large number of voices saying so many things.  But if we start to filter out the least common hashtag utterances, clearer patterns begin to emerge.

Here’s the same Twitter hashtag network, but this time just showing the hashtags for which co-occurrences happen at least 5 times:

Network of Hashtags Co-Occurring at least 5 times in the #millionsmarchnyc network on Twitter, Nov. 26-Dec. 12 2014

Here’s the same Twitter hashtag network, but this time just showing the hashtags that co-occur with some other hashtag at least 20 times:

Network of Hashtags Co-Occurring at Least 20 Times in the #millionsmarchnyc hashtag on Twitter, Nov. 26 - Dec. 12 2014

And here’s the same Twitter hashtag network, but this time just showing the hashtags that co-occur with some other hashtag at least 100 times:

Cultural Network of Hashtag Co-occurrence in the Tweets mentioning #MillionsMarchNYC from November 26 to December 12 2014

If we filter for frequency, we lose detail, but at the same time the core of this movement’s culture becomes apparent.

Although I stand by my claim that this hashtag network indicates something about social movement culture, I should note a few important limitations.  First, the use of a hashtag involves a person deciding how they would like others to categorize their declarations.  These are professions of manifest culture; latent culture remains hidden.  Second, Twitter is not a form of social media that is used by everyone; according to the Pew Internet Project young adults, urbanites and African-Americans are disproportionately likely to post to Twitter.  However, it’s important to note that this is exactly the population that forms the strongest constituency for the Millions March in New York City. In addition, even with the limitations I’ve just noted, the conversation on Twitter is much more expansive and inclusive than the conversation within the movement’s core organizing cadre.  If we’re interested in distinctions between leaders and potential participants in a social movement, Twitter is a pretty good place to look.

Tool Postscript. For data gathering, I used the Twitter API.  For data processing, I used UCINET.  For data visualization, I used NodeXL.